Tag: Profit split method

A transactional profit split method that identifies the relevant profits to be split for the associated enterprises from a controlled transaction (or controlled transactions that it is appropriate to aggregate under the principles of Chapter III) and then splits those profits between the associated enterprises on an economically valid basis that approximates the division of profits that would have been agreed at arm’s length.

Chapter I paragraph 1.9

The arm’s length principle has also been found to work effectively in the vast majority of cases. For example, there are many cases involving the purchase and sale of commodities and the lending of money where an arm’s length price may readily be found in a comparable transaction undertaken by comparable independent enterprises under comparable circumstances. There are also many cases where a relevant comparison of transactions can be made at the level of financial indicators such as mark-up on costs, gross margin, or net profit indicators. Nevertheless, there are some significant cases in which the arm’s length principle is difficult and complicated to apply, for example, in MNE groups dealing in the integrated production of highly specialised goods, in unique intangibles, and/or in the provision of specialised services. Solutions exist to deal with such difficult cases, including the use of the transactional profit split method described in Chapter II, Part III of these Guidelines in those situations where it is the most appropriate method in the circumstances of the case ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.114 (2018)

The transactional profit split method seeks to establish arm’s length outcomes or test reported outcomes for controlled transactions in order to approximate the results that would have been achieved between independent enterprises engaging in a comparable transaction or transactions. The method first identifies the profits to be split from the controlled transactions—the relevant profits—and then splits them between the associated enterprises on an economically valid basis that approximates the division of profits that would have been agreed at arm’s length. As is the case with all transfer pricing methods, the aim is to ensure that profits of the associated enterprises are aligned with the value of their contributions and the compensation which would have been agreed in comparable transactions between independent enterprises for those contributions. The transactional profit split method is particularly useful when the compensation to the associated enterprises can be more reliably valued by reference to the relative shares of their contributions to the profits arising in relation to the transaction(s) than by a more direct estimation of the value of those contributions ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.115 (2018)

References to “profits” in this section should generally be taken as applying equally to losses. That is, where a transactional profit split method is determined to be the most appropriate method, it should generally also apply, and apply in the same way, regardless of whether the transaction(s) result in a relevant profit or loss. Asymmetrical splits of profits and losses (i.e. where the parties apply different considerations depending on the results of the transaction) might be arm’s length, but should be used with caution and appropriately documented ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.116 (2018)

As is noted in paragraph 2.2, the selection of a transfer pricing method always aims at finding the most appropriate method for a particular case, taking into account the respective strengths and weaknesses of each method, its appropriateness in view of the nature of the accurately delineated controlled transaction, the availability of reliable information (in particular on uncontrolled comparables) needed for application, and the degree of comparability between the controlled and uncontrolled transactions. See also paragraphs 2.4 to 2.7 ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.117 (2018)

Guidance on how to determine whether the transactional profit split method is likely to be the most appropriate method is set out below, including the identification of certain features of a transaction which may be relevant. However it is important to note that there is no prescriptive rule for establishing when a particular transfer pricing method is the most appropriate method ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.118 (2018)

While there is no requirement in these Guidelines to undertake exhaustive analysis or testing of every method in each case, the selection of the most appropriate method should take into account the relative appropriateness and reliability of the selected method as compared to other methods which could be used ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.119 (2018)

The main strength of the transactional profit split method is that it can offer a solution for cases where both parties to a transaction make unique and valuable contributions (e.g. contribute unique and valuable intangibles) to the transaction. In such a case independent parties might effectively price the transaction in proportion to their respective contributions, making a two-sided method more appropriate. Furthermore, since those contributions are unique and valuable there will be no reliable comparables information which could be used to price the entirety of the transaction in a more reliable way, through the application of another method. In such cases, the allocation of profits under the transactional profit split method may be based on the contributions made by the associated enterprises, by reference to the relative values of their respective functions, assets and risks. See section C.2.2 below on the nature of the transaction ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.120 (2018)

The transactional profit split method can also provide a solution for highly integrated operations in cases for which a one-sided method would not be appropriate. See section C.2.2.2, below ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.121 (2018)

Another strength of the transactional profit split method is that it can offer flexibility by taking into account specific, possibly unique, facts and circumstances of the associated enterprises that may not be present in independent enterprises. Moreover, where there is a high degree of uncertainty for each of the parties in relation to a transaction, for example in transactions involving the shared assumption of economically significant risks by all parties (or the separate assumption of closely related economically significant risks), the flexibility of the transactional profit split method can allow for the determination of arm’s length profits for each party that vary with the actual outcomes of the risks associated with the transaction ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.122 (2018)

A further strength of the transactional profit split method is that all relevant parties to the transaction are directly evaluated as part of the pricing of the transaction, that is, the contributions of each party to the transaction are specifically identified and their relative values measured in order to determine an arm’s length compensation for each party in relation to the transaction ...