Tag: Contribution analysis

An analysis used in the profit split method under which the relevant profits from controlled transactions are divided between the associated enterprises based upon the relative value of the contributions made by each of the associated enterprises participating in those transactions, supplemented where possible by external market data that indicate how independent enterprises would have divided profits in similar circumstances.

THE APPLICATION OF THE PROFIT SPLIT METHOD WITHIN THE EU (2019)

This paper addresses the first stage and aims at clarifying certain concepts in applying the PSM: (i) when to use the PSM (i.e. in which circumstances it may be considered the most appropriate transfer pricing method) and (ii) how to split the profit based on the concepts described in the revised OECD Guidelines as well as by providing an inventory of recurrent splitting factors. For the avoidance of doubt this report should be regarded as complementary to, and supportive of, the text of the OECD Revised Guidelines on the application of the Transactional Profit Split Method issued in June 2018. The paper is structured as follows: section 2 provides a short description of the profit split method; section 3 seeks to clarify some key concepts related to the use of the profit split method also touching upon some challenging points; and section 4 describes a number of potential splitting factors listed in the Annex.

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.166

Profits should be split on an economically valid basis that reflects the relative contributions of the parties to the transaction and thus approximates the division of profits that would have obtained at arm’s length. The relevance of comparable uncontrolled transactions or internal data (see section C.5.2) and the criteria used to achieve an arm’s length division of the profits depend on the facts and circumstances of the case. It is therefore not desirable to establish […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.151

It can be difficult to determine the relative value of the contribution that each of the associated enterprises makes to the relevant profits, and the approach will depend on the facts and circumstances of each case. The determination might be made by comparing the nature and degree of each party’s contribution of differing types (for example, provision of services, development expenses incurred, assets used or contributed, capital invested) and assigning a percentage based upon the […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.150

Under a contribution analysis, the relevant profits, which are the total profits from the controlled transactions under examination, are divided between the associated enterprises in order to arrive at a reasonable approximation of the division that independent enterprises would have achieved from engaging in comparable transactions. This division can be supported by comparables data where available. In the absence thereof, it should be based on the relative value of the contributions by each of the […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.149

There are a number of approaches to the application of the transactional profit split method, depending on the characteristics of the controlled transactions, and the information available. As has been described above, the method seeks to split the relevant profits from controlled transactions on an economically valid basis, in order to approximate the results that would have been achieved between independent enterprises in comparable circumstances. This may be done by considering the relative contributions of […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.138

Where the contributions are highly inter-related or inter-dependent upon each other, the evaluation of the respective contributions of the parties may need to be done holistically. That is, a high degree of integration may also affect whether contributions by the enterprises are considered to be unique and valuable. For instance, a unique contribution by one party may have a significantly greater value when considered in combination with the particular unique contribution of the other party. […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.125

The accurate delineation of the actual transaction will be important in determining whether a transactional profit split is potentially applicable. This process should have regard to the commercial and financial relations between the associated enterprises, including an analysis of what each party to the transaction does, and the context in which the controlled transactions take place. That is, the accurate delineation of a transaction requires a two-sided analysis (or a multi-sided analysis of the contributions […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.122

A further strength of the transactional profit split method is that all relevant parties to the transaction are directly evaluated as part of the pricing of the transaction, that is, the contributions of each party to the transaction are specifically identified and their relative values measured in order to determine an arm’s length compensation for each party in relation to the transaction.

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.114

The transactional profit split method seeks to establish arm’s length outcomes or test reported outcomes for controlled transactions in order to approximate the results that would have been achieved between independent enterprises engaging in a comparable transaction or transactions. The method first identifies the profits to be split from the controlled transactions—the relevant profits—and then splits them between the associated enterprises on an economically valid basis that approximates the division of profits that would have […]

TPG2017 Chapter I paragraph 1.162

If important group synergies exist and can be attributed to deliberate concerted group actions, the benefits of such synergies should generally be shared by members of the group in proportion to their contribution to the creation of the synergy. For example, where members of the group take deliberate concerted actions to consolidate purchasing activities to take advantage of economies of scale resulting from high volume purchasing, the benefits of those large scale purchasing synergies, if […]

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