Tag: Contribution analysis

An analysis used in the profit split method under which the relevant profits from controlled transactions are divided between the associated enterprises based upon the relative value of the contributions made by each of the associated enterprises participating in those transactions, supplemented where possible by external market data that indicate how independent enterprises would have divided profits in similar circumstances.

Chapter I paragraph 1.19

Global formulary apportionment has been promoted as an alternative to the arm’s length principle by advocates who claim that it would provide greater administrative convenience and certainty for taxpayers. These advocates also take the position that global formulary apportionment is more in keeping with economic reality. They argue that an MNE group must be considered on a group-wide or consolidated basis to reflect the business realities of the relationships among the associated enterprises in the group. They assert that the separate accounting method is inappropriate for highly integrated groups because it is difficult to determine what contribution each associated enterprise makes to the overall profit of the MNE group ...

Chapter I paragraph 1.162

If important group synergies exist and can be attributed to deliberate concerted group actions, the benefits of such synergies should generally be shared by members of the group in proportion to their contribution to the creation of the synergy. For example, where members of the group take deliberate concerted actions to consolidate purchasing activities to take advantage of economies of scale resulting from high volume purchasing, the benefits of those large scale purchasing synergies, if any exist after an appropriate reward to the party co-ordinating the purchasing activities, should typically be shared by the members of the group in proportion to their purchase volumes ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.114 (2018)

The transactional profit split method seeks to establish arm’s length outcomes or test reported outcomes for controlled transactions in order to approximate the results that would have been achieved between independent enterprises engaging in a comparable transaction or transactions. The method first identifies the profits to be split from the controlled transactions—the relevant profits—and then splits them between the associated enterprises on an economically valid basis that approximates the division of profits that would have been agreed at arm’s length. As is the case with all transfer pricing methods, the aim is to ensure that profits of the associated enterprises are aligned with the value of their contributions and the compensation which would have been agreed in comparable transactions between independent enterprises for those contributions. The transactional profit split method is particularly useful when the compensation to the associated enterprises can be more reliably valued by reference to the relative shares of their contributions to the profits arising in relation to the transaction(s) than by a more direct estimation of the value of those contributions ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.122 (2018)

A further strength of the transactional profit split method is that all relevant parties to the transaction are directly evaluated as part of the pricing of the transaction, that is, the contributions of each party to the transaction are specifically identified and their relative values measured in order to determine an arm’s length compensation for each party in relation to the transaction ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.125 (2018)

The accurate delineation of the actual transaction will be important in determining whether a transactional profit split is potentially applicable. This process should have regard to the commercial and financial relations between the associated enterprises, including an analysis of what each party to the transaction does, and the context in which the controlled transactions take place. That is, the accurate delineation of a transaction requires a two-sided analysis (or a multi-sided analysis of the contributions of more than two associated enterprises, where necessary) irrespective of which transfer pricing method is ultimately found to be the most appropriate. (See Section D.1, and in particularly Section D.1.2 of Chapter I of these Guidelines.) ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.138 (2018)

Where the contributions are highly inter-related or inter-dependent upon each other, the evaluation of the respective contributions of the parties may need to be done holistically. That is, a high degree of integration may also affect whether contributions by the enterprises are considered to be unique and valuable. For instance, a unique contribution by one party may have a significantly greater value when considered in combination with the particular unique contribution of the other party. Paragraphs 6.93–6.94 discuss this issue in relation to the combination of intangibles. See also Example 9 in Annex II to Chapter II ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.149 (2018)

There are a number of approaches to the application of the transactional profit split method, depending on the characteristics of the controlled transactions, and the information available. As has been described above, the method seeks to split the relevant profits from controlled transactions on an economically valid basis, in order to approximate the results that would have been achieved between independent enterprises in comparable circumstances. This may be done by considering the relative contributions of each party (a “contribution analysis”). Where the transactional profit split method is the most appropriate method but at least one party also makes some less complex contributions which are capable of being benchmarked by reference to comparable, uncontrolled transactions, a two-stage “residual analysis” may be appropriate ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.150 (2018)

Under a contribution analysis, the relevant profits, which are the total profits from the controlled transactions under examination, are divided between the associated enterprises in order to arrive at a reasonable approximation of the division that independent enterprises would have achieved from engaging in comparable transactions. This division can be supported by comparables data where available. In the absence thereof, it should be based on the relative value of the contributions by each of the associated enterprises participating in the controlled transactions, determined using information internal to the MNE group, as a proxy for the division that independent enterprises would have achieved (see section C.5.2). In cases where the relative value of the contributions can be measured, it may not be necessary to estimate the actual market value of each party’s contributions ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.151 (2018)

It can be difficult to determine the relative value of the contribution that each of the associated enterprises makes to the relevant profits, and the approach will depend on the facts and circumstances of each case. The determination might be made by comparing the nature and degree of each party’s contribution of differing types (for example, provision of services, development expenses incurred, assets used or contributed, capital invested) and assigning a percentage based upon the relative comparison and external market data. See section C.5 for a discussion of how to split the relevant profits ...

Chapter II paragraph 2.166 (2018)

Profits should be split on an economically valid basis that reflects the relative contributions of the parties to the transaction and thus approximates the division of profits that would have obtained at arm’s length. The relevance of comparable uncontrolled transactions or internal data (see section C.5.2) and the criteria used to achieve an arm’s length division of the profits depend on the facts and circumstances of the case. It is therefore not desirable to establish a prescriptive list of criteria or profit splitting factors. See paragraphs 2.146-2.148 for general guidance on the consistency of the determination of the splitting factors. In addition, the criteria or splitting factors used to split the profit should: Be independent of transfer pricing policy formulation, i.e. they should be based on objective data (e.g. sales to independent parties), not on data relating to the remuneration of controlled transactions (e.g. sales to associated enterprises), Be verifiable, and Be supported by comparables data, internal data, or both ...