Tag: Most appropriate transfer pricing method

Norway vs “Distributor A AS”, March 2021, Tax Board, Case No 01-NS 131/2017

A fully fledged Norwegian distributor in the H group was restructured and converted into a Limited risk distributor. The tax authorities issued an assessment where the income of the Norwegian distributor was adjusted to the median in a benchmark study prepared by the tax authorities, based on the “Transactional Net Margin Method” (TNMM method). Decision of the Tax Board In a majority decision, the Tax Board determined that the case should be send back to […]

TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 5

20. WebCo is a member of an MNE group that develops IT solutions for business customers. Recently, WebCo designed the architecture of a web crawler to collect pricing data from internet sites. WebCo has written the code of the program so it is able to systematically scan web pages in a more efficient and faster way than any other similar search engines available in the market. 21. At this stage, WebCo licenses the program to […]

TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 4

16. The facts in this example are the same as in Example 3, except that the marketing activities performed by Company B are more limited and do not significantly enhance the goodwill or reputation associated with the trademark. Company B has a mechanism whereby customer feedback on the products it sells is relayed to Company A, but this is a relatively simple process, and does not constitute a unique and valuable contribution. In sum, its […]

TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 2

5. A Co, a member of T Group, is a company incorporated in Country A whose principal activity is the growing and processing of tea. A Co identifies, acquires and cultivates land with extremely good soil for growing tea. A Co has developed extensive know- how in respect of tea-growing, including maximising the desirable qualities of the tea it grows through its cultivation methods. The properties of the soil together with the cultivation methods give […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.183

In some cases, a significant issue for the reliability of cost-based splitting factors is the determination of the relevant period of time from which the elements of determination of the profit splitting factor(s) (e.g. assets, costs, or others) should be taken into account. A difficulty arises because there can be a lag between the time when expenses are incurred and the time when value is created, and it is sometimes difficult to decide which period’s […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.182

In identifying and applying appropriate cost-based profit splitting factors a number of issues may need to be considered. One is that there may be differences between the parties in the timing of expenditure. For example, research and development costs that are relevant to the value of a party’s contributions may have been incurred several years in the past, whereas the expenditure for another party may be current. As a result, it may be necessary to […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.145

This section has described certain characteristics of the transactional profit split method and provided a number of potential indicators as to when it may be found to be the most appropriate method, as well as a number of factors which may point in the opposite direction. The guidance in this regard does not seek to be comprehensive, nor is it prescriptive. The presence or absence of one or more of the indicators described in this […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.143

In general, it will tend to be the case that the presence of factors indicating that a transactional profit split is the most appropriate method will correspond to an absence of factors indicating that an alternative transfer pricing method—one which relies entirely on comparables—is the most appropriate method, determined in accordance with paragraph 2.2 of these Guidelines. Put another way, if information on reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions is available to price the transaction in its […]

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.140

A transactional profit split may also be found to be the most appropriate method where, according to the accurately delineated transaction, the various economically significant risks in relation to the transaction are separately assumed by the parties, but those risks are so closely inter-related and/or correlated that the playing out of the risks of each party cannot reliably be isolated. See Example 10 in Annex II to Chapter II.

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.139

A transactional profit split may be found to be the most appropriate method where, according to the accurately delineated transaction, each party to the controlled transaction shares the assumption of one or more of the economically significant risks in relation to that transaction (see paragraph 1.95).

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